PAN: Children

Welcome to the PAN:Children Portal. PAN:Children is an online knowledge-hub complemented by dialogue and capacity building activities. We seek to provide timely and up-to-date information on child rights and equity. A partnership between the HSRC and UNICEF, this platform aims to provide a consolidated digital repository on the situation of children in South Africa. Please see the “About Us” page for further information.

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Latest publications

The Mediterranean journal of social sciences published an article entitled, The determinants of child poverty in a South Africa township: a case of Boipatong. The study  investigates the possible determinants of child poverty in the Boipatong Township. Research shows that the most affected groups of people where poverty prevails are women and children. Child poverty is considered to be one of the main causes of chronic poverty, and its eradication stands to be a shared goal worldwide.

In the poverty trend report by Stats SA, it is illustrates that a number of children are living below the poverty line. This article eleborates on the determants of child poverty. Focusing on Boipatong township, the paper discusses the effects of the household’s total income, employment status, age of the household head, the number of people in the household and gender of head of household on child poverty.The results of the study indicate that the employment status of the head of the household; number of people living in the household and total income of the household are significant determinants of child poverty status in Boipatong. Under employment status, the study discovered that formal employment was associated with lower levels of poverty and also that the probability of being poor was lower if one was employed formally. This may imply that policies that are aimed at dealing with poverty and child poverty in particular should consider ways of creating formal employment for people in the townships. The negative relationship between age and poverty may imply the order people have more sources of income. This income could be from old age grants or from pensions.


Poverty Trends in South Africa report released by Statistics South Africa (Stats SA) showed a strong link between increased level of education and decreased levels of poverty. However, the report also reveals that most children in South Africa are still living below the poverty line and have seen the least improvement of all the age groups.

This guide is a short introduction for decision-makers and researchers or anyone else considering whether a systematic review may be appropriate to fill a gap in knowledge or to use as a resource. It aims to help anybody planning or commissioning a review of what research is already out there. It would be of value to  analysts, evaluators, policymakers or commissioners.  The guide is aimed at anybody from central government, local authorities, public service providers, regulatory and advisory bodies, charities or the consultancy sector.

A review of South Africa's laws aimed at realising children's rights to assess whether these laws have been designed and are being implemented in compliance with international and constitutional law.

The Centre for Constitutional Rights published its sixth annual Human Rights Report Card indicating where, in their opinion, South Africa has been making progress with regard to human rights and where it has been regressing.

This article reviews the Maintenance Act no 99 of 1998. Successes and challenges are discussed.

Link: Publication

Crime presents a fundamental challenge in South Africa. Particularly disturbing is the prevalence of violence committed by and against young people. The main purpose of this article is to look at how South Africa should deal with the issue of youth violence. It argues that while structural violence constitutes a significant contextual cause of the phenomenon, a more proximate and specific cause lies in young people’s exposure to direct violence in their schools, homes and communities. This article thus examines the potential merits of restorative justice as a response to the problem of youth violence, focusing particularly on the 2009 Child Justice Act.

Link: Publication

This research sought to investigate the nature, causes and effects of school violence in four South African high schools.The study found that bullying, vandalism, gangsterism, indiscipline, intolerance, and corporal punishment were prevalent in schools. Furthermore, the study found that school violence had the following effects on learners: loss of concentration; poor academic performance; bunking of classes; and depression. The implications of these findings are discussed in detail.

Link: Publication

Establishing reliable indicators of the current state of school crime and safety across the nation and regularly updating and monitoring these indicators is important in ensuring the safety of our nation's students. This is the aim of "Indicators of School Crime and Safety." This report presents the most recent data available on school crime and student safety.

This study analyzes the subjective theories regarding school violence held by six school officials of the city of Coquimbo (Chile). The study's main objective is to identify and interpret the various subjective theories regarding school violence held by the school. The study focuses on six members of the academic advisory board from six different schools, three municipal (public) schools and three subsidized private schools in the region of Coquimbo (Chile). Because the role of the administrative team is becoming increasingly important in the proper functioning of educational institutions, characteristics of school officials such as their leadership skills, negotiation skills, or abilities solve conflicts, have a direct impact on the success or failure of any educational program.